One of the consequences of selling an appreciated investment, be it a stock, collectibles or investment real estate, is the assessment of taxes on any capital gains. In the case of real estate or personal property, tax liability upon disposition may also include depreciation recapture.
Fortunately, Section 1031 the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) provides a safe harbor that enables investors to defer making these payments if they promptly replace the property sold with “like kind” assets in accordance with the IRC rules. These are called 1031 exchanges. The definition of “like kind” is very specific as applied to personal property (i.e., a truck may be exchanged for another truck, but not a tractor). In contrast, “like kind” is construed very broadly for real estate (i.e., a commercial building exchanged for an apartment, farmland, or oil and gas royalties). Assuming all of the rules are strictly followed, the investor’s tax basis in the sold property will carry over to the replacement property, and the capital gains tax and depreciation recapture that ordinarily would be assessed at the time of sale will instead be levied when the replacement property is sold.
So how can you avail yourself of this tax benefit? To get started, you will first need a qualified intermediary (QI), also known as an exchange accommodator, to hold your sale proceeds for the duration of the exchange transaction. QIs are often affiliated with banks or title companies, their reputations will be evidenced by an established track record, and they should not be related to the exchanging party. Having a QI is critical because any sale proceeds disbursed directly to the investor cannot be part of the 1031 exchange.
Next, you will enter into contracts to sell your property, and to buy one or more replacement properties with the proceeds. The QI will provide you with language to be included in the purchase and sale contracts to indicate that an exchange is taking place. In a traditional exchange, your sale will happen first. When you close, the QI will hold all of your net sale proceeds until you are ready to acquire your replacement property.
You have 45 days from the date your sale closes to identify potential replacement properties. You may identify multiple properties, either together or in the alternative. However, in order to completely defer your taxes, the value of all of the replacement property you acquire must be greater than or equal to the value of what you just sold. This includes the amount of any mortgage. So if you have a $500,000 mortgage on your property and you sell it for $1.5 million, your replacement property must be worth at least $1.5 million, even though you only have $1 million in cash proceeds. It is prudent to buy slightly more expensive replacement property, as some transaction costs may be ineligible for the exchange under the IRC. In the example above, your replacement property may be another $1.5 million (or greater) property, two $750,000+ properties, or even three $500,000+ properties. The rules permit you to identify alternatives in case one or more of your options does not work out.
Whatever you choose, you must acquire all of your replacement property within 180 days of your initial sale. Any proceeds that are not reinvested in the 180 day exchange period will be returned to you, and you will be subject to any taxes due on that amount.
As noted above, the rules for a 1031 exchange are very specific, and this article merely provides an overview. The rule that is not in the tax code is perhaps the most important – you should consult with your accountant or a knowledgeable tax advisor before undertaking any exchange.
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